Monthly Archives: October 2018

Tabiat Pedestrian Bridge

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Tabiat Pedestrian Bridge

Tabiat Pedestrian Bridge is considered today to be one the strategic landmarks in the city of Tehran. It is a 270-meter-long pedestrian bridge. It spans a valley and connecting two public parks on each side of the Modarres Highway, one of the major highways in the city.

tabiat bridge

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It’s designed with the idea to become a “place to stay” rather than “to pass”. The project architects are  Leila AraghianAlireza Behzadi, and Sahar Yasaei. The Bridge stands out as an innovative contemporary architectural and engineering design in a most strategic location.

This location enables the passer-by to get out of the nightmare of the traffic jam that is in Tehran. And to overlook the whole city, with its spectacular background scene of the Alborz Mountains.

With its sense of complexity, the Bridge generates different experiences in day and night-time for users. Users experience it as a revolutionary masterpiece in a time of political and economic crisis.

It derives its meaning from its name Tabiat (originally an Arabic word, tabi’at, that means nature in the Farsi language). The Bridge engenders an unprecedented revolution in how bridges can be designed for empowering the pedestrian movement and not that of vehicles.

tabiat bridge

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Brief historical background

In 1975, Mohammad Reza Shah, the leader of Iran, inaugurated the construction of a ceremonial urban center in northern Tehran.

The proposed plan, prepared by Llewelyn Davies International, consisted of a large plaza and two boulevards lined with governmental and commercial buildings.

But the Shah’s vision was never realized. Afterward, construction was soon halted with the eruption of protests that led to the fall of the Pahlavi monarchy in 1979.

The Llewelyn Davies plan was not the first proposal for the site. It was initially included in Tehran’s master plan, prepared jointly by Victor Gruen and Farmanfarmaian Associates (1966-70).

In late 1973, Louis Kahn [as well as Kenzo Tange] were solicited to prepare a proposal, which was never finished, as Kahn died in March 1974.

Underlying all these proposals was a yearning to create a modernized, acculturated and apolitical urban middle class.

The trajectory of these plans demonstrates how the demand for rapid modernization led, ultimately, to the “tragedy of development”.


The area where the Bridge is located is called the Abbasabad Hills. It covers an area of 560 hectares with a special topographic characteristic. That makes it different from all its surrounding city texture, and the residential developments around it couldn’t expand on this hilly area.

After the Islamic revolution in 1979 and following the eight years of Iran-Iraq war. As the construction in the country restarted in the late 80s to early 90s, there were a few more proposals by local firms. Eventually, the final master plan which was confirmed for these areas was to make all these lands into green low-rise public spaces.

In the latest master plan (done by the office of Seyed Hadi Mirmiran, called Naqsh-e-Jahan Pars), there are pedestrian connections between the two parks. It is about maximizing pedestrian movement and minimizing the motor-vehicle entries to the site. This is where the necessity of having a pedestrian bridge between the two parks was initiated.

tabiat bridge

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Local architectural character

The Bridge connects two green parks, and it is among the rare places in Tehran where one can still experience nature. Most families come for picnics in this preserved natural setting, escaping the hectic traffic and the city’s density.

Thus, the character of this site is a green landscape with few architectural and urban infringements.
However, there was a landscape project that was implemented by the same design office that did Tabiat Bridge. It was the beginning of the whole project of restructuring this area. An attraction zone for Tehranis to experience nature and open-air community life.

tabiat bridge

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General programme objectives

The brief of what the competition to design a bridge aimed to:

  • Provide a pedestrian connection between the two sides of Modarres Highway.
  • Create an architectural and engineering landmark that enhances the identity of Tehran.
  • Design a bridge that celebrates the pedestrian experience and not the vehicular one.

The technology used in constructing the Bridge is local though some raw materials are imported. CNC-cut steel pipes were welded to each other. The cranes may have been purchased from abroad. In general, there was not a specific technology imported from abroad. The work was fully done by an Iranian contractor, sub-contractors and labor.

  • The steel pipes were imported from China
  • The Resysta Paving was imported from Germany to Dubai
  • All the rest of the materials were supplied locally from Iran
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Persian Gardens

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Persian Gardens

Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings that comes with it.

In this sense, the architecture and design are the interfaces for transferring meaning and identity to the nation
and future generations.

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Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of the Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society.

Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society.

The earliest evidence of Persian gardens was recorded in 600 B.C. at the Palace area in Pasargadae and dates back to the final years of the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-30 B.C.).

The garden was based on the Zoroastrian division of the universe into four parts, four seasons or the four elements; water, wind, soil, and fire (Karimi-Hakkak 1998).

A mystical feeling for flowers and a love of gardens are integral parts of ancient Persian gardens. The Persian garden is a manifestation of supreme values and concepts and is well-known as a bridge connecting the two worlds of matter and meaning.

The philosophical design concept of Persian gardens is believed to be rooted in the four sacred elements of water, wind, fire, and soil.

The geometrical design of Persian gardens has been reflected in Persian carpets, potteries, and visual arts. The other distinctive feature of Persian gardens.

Which contributes to the introspective characteristics of ancient Persian people, is the wide application of thick brick walls, which surround the entire rectangular plan of the garden.

Other traits of Persian gardens include the application of perpendicular angles and straight lines, ponds and pools to supply the water and highlight the scenic landscape view.

Simultaneous use of evergreen and deciduous trees, planting of various types of plants and consideration of focal a pavilion known as Kooshk.

The purpose of designing gardens in Persia was not only limited to providing green spaces for the inhabitants, but also creating the opportunity for further interaction between the human and nature.

As well as creating various ranges of functions (Gharipour 2011) and promoting Persian culture via various design elements (Müller-Wille 2001).

In fact, Persian gardens are not only about beautiful geometries and shapes; but they manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol.

For instance, Shahzadeh-Mahan Garden, Fin Garden, and Chehel Sotun Garden, all of which are located in semi-desert and desert lowland zones near to the vast deserts of Iran: the Dasht-e Kavir and the Dasht-e Lut.

Persian gardens were designed with a sacred geometry representing and illustrating a union of the mortal/material world and the eternal universe (Khansari et al. 1998).

Therefore, the geometric structure can be considered as one of the most prominent features of Persian gardens.

The initial structure of Persian gardens was based on a geometrical quadripartite division with a pavilion in its intersection.

The general idea of this formation was based on the pre-Islamic Iranian division of the earth into four quarters, which may have been inspired by the geometrical motifs of Mesopotamia and Sindh Valley civilizations (Massoudi 2009).

During the Islamic period, the geometric quartered pattern of Persian gardens became more reinforced by the belief of four heavenly streams; as it was similar to the image of the heaven in the Quran (Mansouri 2011).

Therefore, the general pattern of most Persian gardens consisted of a rectangular space which is quartered by intersecting streams and pathways.

The common irrigation system of the time has been known as another effective factor in the formation of geometric garden structure besides the impact of Persian beliefs and morals (Naghizadeh 2013).

The structure and spirit of Persian gardens have been registered in the UNESCO’s World Heritage List.

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Azadi Tower

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Azadi Tower

On October 16, 1971, the Shah of Iran inaugurated the Shahyad Aryamehr Monument. Azadi Tower . Less than nine years later, with Iran engulfed in the revolutionary events of 1979, the Shah would catch one last glimpse of this structure while leaving for exile.

The Shah lost to the revolutionaries, the Pahlavi legacy gave way to the Islamic Republic, and Shahyad was refashioned as the symbolic monument of the revolution, and renamed Azadi (Freedom).

Shahyad/Azadi played a central role within larger efforts of two Iranian regimes to define the nation’s past, present, and future.

Azadi tower located at Azadi square is considered at first sight as an urban symbol. This square, which used to be called Shahyad prior to 1375 Islamic revolution, has been constructed oval shaped which is centered by Azadi tower. It has two car passing ways which are built two floors in certain sections. There is a hexagonal grass bud between tower and side paths.
This square with 50000 m
2 area takes second place after Naghsh- e Jahan square with 89600 m2area. Based on performed surveys, most of Tehran (apartments in Tehran) citizens believe Azadi tower as the city symbol.

This construction was built as the symbol of the capital city at King Mohammad Reza era. Engineer Hossein Amanat designed Shahyad square and this was one of his works that soon became popular nationally and even internationally.

The main view has 4 main squares (21 x 21m) as the base so that the main arch locates within the central square and the extension of construction bases is in line with diagonals of side squares at the center of fourth squares. Within important sizes of the construction 3 meters repeats in horizon and height.

This has been observed for the establishment of concrete rings which pass through four supporting bases. The main arches of the construction are of the conical kind whose mathematic equations have been defined (Amanat, 1973).

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Azadi tower’s architecture is a combination of Achamendia, Sassanid and Islamic eras. The main arch at the middle is a symbol for Kasra arch related to pre- Islamic era and the upper one, which is zigzag, shows post- Islamic era. Within these domes which indicate Iranian genius, early architectures moved from square foundation to circular and performed by very beautiful corniced pieces.

This also is a trend in Azadi square construction. The geometry is a square- rectangular one which turns from their four bases and changes to a 16- goal shape and finally takes the shape of a dome.

Though, this does isn’t apparent from the outside, while from inside is. Figures inside the tower are a combination of tradition and modernism, particularly second-floor ceiling.

This square was designed and built as a ceremonial space to welcome foreigner official guests. But it changed to the city symbol in Iranian and foreigners mind over time. This construction can be seen from far distances because it is high enough and visual and traffic axis end here, too.

Azadi monument actually consists of four huge pillars which meet at the top and make the flung open. The whole design includes grass and flower space, restaurant, cinema, library, two museums, amphitheater, elevator, and various floors and stairs. The design combines different architectural styles of various eras including Achaemenian, Sassanid, Safavid and etc. through completely modern perspectives.

For example, the upper vault has been designed in Islamic style and the lower one similar to Kasra arch. The planned site is oval and the tower has 45 meters height from the square surface. The body is made out of armed concrete and Jowshaghan marble was used for covering.

The green space was designed based on Iranian gardening in the shape of four green hills. From the top perspective, the plan site geometry has been designed based on Sheykh Lotfollah Mosque’s dome lower figures form and geometry. Kashan Fin garden waterfronts were modeled to construct waterfronts inside the site. The square surface joins to side paths through the underground pathway on the eastern side. The design of this space was inspired by traditional architecture and formed according to the geometry and vaults of Iranian bazaars (Bani Masud, 1388, 321- 323).


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Milad Tower


Milad Tower

is the tallest tower ( milad tower ) in Iran. Built in 2007 in Tehran, it stands 435 meters high. The head consists of a large pod with 12 floors, the roof of which is at 315 meters. Below this is a staircase and elevators to reach the area.

Milad Tower is the sixth tallest tower in the world after the Guangzhou TV and Sightseeing Tower in Guangzhou, CN Tower in Toronto, Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai and the Tokyo Skytree. rent apartment in tehran . It is also currently (in early 2010) the 14th tallest freestanding structure in the world.

Part of the Tehran International Trade and Convention Center, Milad telecommunication tower has restaurants at the top that offer a panoramic view of Tehran, a fivestar hotel, a convention center, a world trade centre and an IT park, Tehranmiladtower reported.

The tower is in fact a complex that seeks to respond to the needs of business in the globalised world in the 21st century by offering facilities combining trade, information, communication, convention and accommodation all in one place.

Furthermore, the complex features a parking area of 27,000 square meters, a large computer and telecommunications unit, a cultural and scientific unit, a commercial transaction center, a showroom for exhibiting products, a specialized library, an exhibition hall and an administrative unit. Milad Tower has an octagonal base that symbolizes traditional Persian architecture.

milad tower


Milad Tower consists of five main parts: foundation, transition (lobby) structure, shaft, head structure and antenna mast. The lobby’s structure consists of six floors.

The first three floors consist of 63 trade units, 11 food courts, a cafeteria and a commercial products exhibition. The first and second underground floors consist of official and installation sections and a data center. The ground floor is devoted to the entrance and visitors’ reception.

The shaft is a concrete structure 315 meters high from ground floor. On three sides, six elevators are designed to transfer visitors to the head of the tower at a speed of 7 meters per second. An emergency staircase exists on the fourth side. The head of the tower is a steel structure weighing about 25,000 tons, which consist of 12 floors.

This structure is the biggest and the tallest multi-story structure among all the telecommunication towers in the world. On the top floors of the tower are the fire-immune area as a refuge zone, a closed observation deck, cafeteria, public art gallery, an open observation deck, a revolving restaurant, telecommunication floors, a VIP restaurant, mechanical floors and a sky dome. The four-stage antenna mast is 120 meters high.

The lower floor of the mast is for the adjustment of public users’ telecommunication antennas and the three upper floors are devoted to the antenna of the national radio and television organization of Iran.


Observation Deck

The third floor of the tower is the Observation Deck.

This is the first public floor of Milad Tower that offers a great view in an enclosed area containing windows with a height of 20 meters. There is access to the cafeteria, art gallery and a revolving restaurant that can be reached from this floor by stairs.


Art Gallery

Art Gallery is located on the 5th floor from where one can view a display of valuable work of visual arts. The aim of the tower’s management in this regard, is to create a specific area to introduce this work to those who are interested in these arts.


International Convention Center

The centre’s main parts are seven conference halls and an exhibition space with an area of 700 square meters, and it also consists of a lobby, a training room, two restrooms, a radio and television studio, and reception services.

milad tower

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International Hotel

A five-star hotel with an area of 52,000 square meters has been established to provide local and global tourists, as well as guests, attending conventions with accommodation and reception services.


World Trade Center

Spread over 40,000 square meters, this center has been established with different sections for national and global commercial business transactions, exhibition areas for displaying products and services, as well as technical and scientific conventions.

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