Jame Mosque of Yazd
Jame mosque of Yazd is one of the most precious historical heritages of art and a treasure of Islamic architecture located in the city of Yazd. This mosque consists of a rectangular courtyard of 99*104 meters with a dome and Iwan at the Mecca side. Which there are high Shabestans at its two sides.
The southern Shabestan link to an embowed catacomb which is located at the back of the main door. This door head which repaired many times in recent years. It has modified proportions which are from the characteristics of the late fourteenth century and a pair of minarets is located at the upper part of it (Golombek, 1995, 495).
Islamic architecture of Iran is the result of the natural continuation of the architecture of different periods. Timurid architecture is, in fact, the continuation and development of Seljuk architecture.
The architectural focus on building mosques and other buildings, alongside a wide variety of buildings with different functions. Using maps with the dominant element of the Iwan (porch), domes and apron, great ability in establishing the structures of arches and domes. Use of available materials, and artistic and extensive use of decorative plaster. The like, are among the features of Iranian architecture in the Timurid period.
Timurid architecture, benefiting from Ilkhani and Seljuk and using Iranian architects and artists, gained strong and complete structure and principles. Which the buildings remained from this period show these features very well. That features such as orientation toward greatness, progress in a variety of decorations, growth, and excellence in vaulting techniques and crisscross vaults and geometry application.
Examples built in the Timurid period welcomed by many architects and artists and used as a perfect model for the architects of the next periods. Among the famous and important mosques in this period we can refer to Jame Mosque of Yazd.
Due to common physical characteristics of the architecture of mosques in Timurid style, results indicate that the
architecture of the mosques in this period have similarities with the mosques of Seljuk and Ilkhani periods. In terms of function, structure, and decorations. The details of each period differ from the others, but they have many similarities in terms of general principles.
Architectural Space Features
Jame Mosque of Yazd is the oldest example of that design consisting of a summery vault Maghsoore, and a high rectangular Shabestan or mostly called wintery mosque.
The second important feature is the extensive application of all-around vaults (vault and rib) in the rectangular Shabestans.
The third feature is the eye-catching glazed tile decoration (Golombek, 1995, 594).
Furthermore, The main square-shaped tholos has one open central spout towards the Iwan and two pass ways towards iwan’s screws that some loges were built on them later.
And the main side walls of the tholos have also central wide spouts which there are smaller spouts aside them, but the size of the central spouts have been reduced (Golombek, 1995, 595).
Vault, Dome, and Iwan
Jame Mosque of Yazd was built in Khorasani style with a tint of columned Shabestan. Which today nothing is left from that and instead, a columned Shabestan have been built at the east of its Miansara.
The tholos and the Shabestans of south Miansara were built in Azerbaijani style. The tholos has a discrete double-shell dome. The parietal is a Nari dome and itself is a dome with light Shabdari hasp (Chefd). Which for some reasons at the time of working, has been used as harsh Shabdari. The inside of ribs is filled with KhanchePoosh style (Pirnia, 2001, 233-234).
The Building Methods and Decorations
The dome is decorated with a beautiful geometric thousand weaves design. The Mihrab has Moarragh tiles and has a Mogharnas vault at the top. Which is inside a rectangular frame.
The walls of tholos have a surbase of light blue hexagonal tiles. Which is located inside a narrow strip of Moarragh tiles. Various drawings of Moarragh tiles and can be seen in the courtyard that probably most of them are new repairs.
These decorations with floor bricks and the drawings of Moallaghi and inscriptions of Moarragh tiles and Kufic ones have created an innovative and breathtaking collection that provokes admiration of the beholder (Golombek, 1995, 596).