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Persian Gardens

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Persian Gardens

Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings that comes with it.

In this sense, the architecture and design are the interfaces for transferring meaning and identity to the nation
and future generations.

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Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of the Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society.

Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society.

The earliest evidence of Persian gardens was recorded in 600 B.C. at the Palace area in Pasargadae and dates back to the final years of the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-30 B.C.).

The garden was based on the Zoroastrian division of the universe into four parts, four seasons or the four elements; water, wind, soil, and fire (Karimi-Hakkak 1998).

A mystical feeling for flowers and a love of gardens are integral parts of ancient Persian gardens. The Persian garden is a manifestation of supreme values and concepts and is well-known as a bridge connecting the two worlds of matter and meaning.

The philosophical design concept of Persian gardens is believed to be rooted in the four sacred elements of water, wind, fire, and soil.

The geometrical design of Persian gardens has been reflected in Persian carpets, potteries, and visual arts. The other distinctive feature of Persian gardens.

Which contributes to the introspective characteristics of ancient Persian people, is the wide application of thick brick walls, which surround the entire rectangular plan of the garden.

Other traits of Persian gardens include the application of perpendicular angles and straight lines, ponds and pools to supply the water and highlight the scenic landscape view.

Simultaneous use of evergreen and deciduous trees, planting of various types of plants and consideration of focal a pavilion known as Kooshk.

The purpose of designing gardens in Persia was not only limited to providing green spaces for the inhabitants, but also creating the opportunity for further interaction between the human and nature.

As well as creating various ranges of functions (Gharipour 2011) and promoting Persian culture via various design elements (Müller-Wille 2001).

In fact, Persian gardens are not only about beautiful geometries and shapes; but they manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol.

For instance, Shahzadeh-Mahan Garden, Fin Garden, and Chehel Sotun Garden, all of which are located in semi-desert and desert lowland zones near to the vast deserts of Iran: the Dasht-e Kavir and the Dasht-e Lut.

Persian gardens were designed with a sacred geometry representing and illustrating a union of the mortal/material world and the eternal universe (Khansari et al. 1998).

Therefore, the geometric structure can be considered as one of the most prominent features of Persian gardens.

The initial structure of Persian gardens was based on a geometrical quadripartite division with a pavilion in its intersection.

The general idea of this formation was based on the pre-Islamic Iranian division of the earth into four quarters, which may have been inspired by the geometrical motifs of Mesopotamia and Sindh Valley civilizations (Massoudi 2009).

During the Islamic period, the geometric quartered pattern of Persian gardens became more reinforced by the belief of four heavenly streams; as it was similar to the image of the heaven in the Quran (Mansouri 2011).

Therefore, the general pattern of most Persian gardens consisted of a rectangular space which is quartered by intersecting streams and pathways.

The common irrigation system of the time has been known as another effective factor in the formation of geometric garden structure besides the impact of Persian beliefs and morals (Naghizadeh 2013).

The structure and spirit of Persian gardens have been registered in the UNESCO’s World Heritage List.

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Milad Tower


Milad Tower

is the tallest tower ( milad tower ) in Iran. Built in 2007 in Tehran, it stands 435 meters high. The head consists of a large pod with 12 floors, the roof of which is at 315 meters. Below this is a staircase and elevators to reach the area.

Milad Tower is the sixth tallest tower in the world after the Guangzhou TV and Sightseeing Tower in Guangzhou, CN Tower in Toronto, Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai and the Tokyo Skytree. rent apartment in tehran . It is also currently (in early 2010) the 14th tallest freestanding structure in the world.

Part of the Tehran International Trade and Convention Center, Milad telecommunication tower has restaurants at the top that offer a panoramic view of Tehran, a fivestar hotel, a convention center, a world trade centre and an IT park, Tehranmiladtower reported.

The tower is in fact a complex that seeks to respond to the needs of business in the globalised world in the 21st century by offering facilities combining trade, information, communication, convention and accommodation all in one place.

Furthermore, the complex features a parking area of 27,000 square meters, a large computer and telecommunications unit, a cultural and scientific unit, a commercial transaction center, a showroom for exhibiting products, a specialized library, an exhibition hall and an administrative unit. Milad Tower has an octagonal base that symbolizes traditional Persian architecture.

milad tower


Milad Tower consists of five main parts: foundation, transition (lobby) structure, shaft, head structure and antenna mast. The lobby’s structure consists of six floors.

The first three floors consist of 63 trade units, 11 food courts, a cafeteria and a commercial products exhibition. The first and second underground floors consist of official and installation sections and a data center. The ground floor is devoted to the entrance and visitors’ reception.

The shaft is a concrete structure 315 meters high from ground floor. On three sides, six elevators are designed to transfer visitors to the head of the tower at a speed of 7 meters per second. An emergency staircase exists on the fourth side. The head of the tower is a steel structure weighing about 25,000 tons, which consist of 12 floors.

This structure is the biggest and the tallest multi-story structure among all the telecommunication towers in the world. On the top floors of the tower are the fire-immune area as a refuge zone, a closed observation deck, cafeteria, public art gallery, an open observation deck, a revolving restaurant, telecommunication floors, a VIP restaurant, mechanical floors and a sky dome. The four-stage antenna mast is 120 meters high.

The lower floor of the mast is for the adjustment of public users’ telecommunication antennas and the three upper floors are devoted to the antenna of the national radio and television organization of Iran.


Observation Deck

The third floor of the tower is the Observation Deck.

This is the first public floor of Milad Tower that offers a great view in an enclosed area containing windows with a height of 20 meters. There is access to the cafeteria, art gallery and a revolving restaurant that can be reached from this floor by stairs.


Art Gallery

Art Gallery is located on the 5th floor from where one can view a display of valuable work of visual arts. The aim of the tower’s management in this regard, is to create a specific area to introduce this work to those who are interested in these arts.


International Convention Center

The centre’s main parts are seven conference halls and an exhibition space with an area of 700 square meters, and it also consists of a lobby, a training room, two restrooms, a radio and television studio, and reception services.

milad tower

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International Hotel

A five-star hotel with an area of 52,000 square meters has been established to provide local and global tourists, as well as guests, attending conventions with accommodation and reception services.


World Trade Center

Spread over 40,000 square meters, this center has been established with different sections for national and global commercial business transactions, exhibition areas for displaying products and services, as well as technical and scientific conventions.

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