On October 16, 1971, the Shah of Iran inaugurated the Shahyad Aryamehr Monument. Azadi Tower . Less than nine years later, with Iran engulfed in the revolutionary events of 1979, the Shah would catch one last glimpse of this structure while leaving for exile.
The Shah lost to the revolutionaries, the Pahlavi legacy gave way to the Islamic Republic, and Shahyad was refashioned as the symbolic monument of the revolution, and renamed Azadi (Freedom).
Shahyad/Azadi played a central role within larger efforts of two Iranian regimes to define the nation’s past, present, and future.
Azadi tower located at Azadi square is considered at first sight as an urban symbol. This square, which used to be called Shahyad prior to 1375 Islamic revolution, has been constructed oval shaped which is centered by Azadi tower. It has two car passing ways which are built two floors in certain sections. There is a hexagonal grass bud between tower and side paths.
This square with 50000 m2 area takes second place after Naghsh- e Jahan square with 89600 m2area. Based on performed surveys, most of Tehran (apartments in Tehran) citizens believe Azadi tower as the city symbol.
This construction was built as the symbol of the capital city at King Mohammad Reza era. Engineer Hossein Amanat designed Shahyad square and this was one of his works that soon became popular nationally and even internationally.
The main view has 4 main squares (21 x 21m) as the base so that the main arch locates within the central square and the extension of construction bases is in line with diagonals of side squares at the center of fourth squares. Within important sizes of the construction 3 meters repeats in horizon and height.
This has been observed for the establishment of concrete rings which pass through four supporting bases. The main arches of the construction are of the conical kind whose mathematic equations have been defined (Amanat, 1973).
Azadi tower’s architecture is a combination of Achamendia, Sassanid and Islamic eras. The main arch at the middle is a symbol for Kasra arch related to pre- Islamic era and the upper one, which is zigzag, shows post- Islamic era. Within these domes which indicate Iranian genius, early architectures moved from square foundation to circular and performed by very beautiful corniced pieces.
This also is a trend in Azadi square construction. The geometry is a square- rectangular one which turns from their four bases and changes to a 16- goal shape and finally takes the shape of a dome.
Though, this does isn’t apparent from the outside, while from inside is. Figures inside the tower are a combination of tradition and modernism, particularly second-floor ceiling.
This square was designed and built as a ceremonial space to welcome foreigner official guests. But it changed to the city symbol in Iranian and foreigners mind over time. This construction can be seen from far distances because it is high enough and visual and traffic axis end here, too.
Azadi monument actually consists of four huge pillars which meet at the top and make the flung open. The whole design includes grass and flower space, restaurant, cinema, library, two museums, amphitheater, elevator, and various floors and stairs. The design combines different architectural styles of various eras including Achaemenian, Sassanid, Safavid and etc. through completely modern perspectives.
For example, the upper vault has been designed in Islamic style and the lower one similar to Kasra arch. The planned site is oval and the tower has 45 meters height from the square surface. The body is made out of armed concrete and Jowshaghan marble was used for covering.
The green space was designed based on Iranian gardening in the shape of four green hills. From the top perspective, the plan site geometry has been designed based on Sheykh Lotfollah Mosque’s dome lower figures form and geometry. Kashan Fin garden waterfronts were modeled to construct waterfronts inside the site. The square surface joins to side paths through the underground pathway on the eastern side. The design of this space was inspired by traditional architecture and formed according to the geometry and vaults of Iranian bazaars (Bani Masud, 1388, 321- 323).