Golestan Province Area
Geo-climatologically, Iran is divided into four major areas:
- A temperate and moist subtropical area, characterized by lush vegetation and moderate to thick forests covering a major part of the Iranian land on the southern coast of the Caspian.
- A mountainous and cold area characterized by numerous mountain chains and intermittent valley systems found in the west of Iran mainly among, but not limited to, the Zagros Mountains.
- A warm semi-arid to arid area characterized by vast plains and scattered mountain ranges with more fertile plains adjacent to river systems and containing occasional sand or salt deserts. This area covers the biggest part of the inner Iranian Plateau.
- A hot and humid area consisting mostly of the southern areas of Iran bordering the Persian Gulf along with the Khuzistan Plain.
Based on this categorization, Golestan Province is characterized by the weather and climate of the first group. Thanks to its geographical location and topographical conditions, the climates in this area range from cold mountainous to moderate, semiarid, and arid climates. Climate-wise, the province is divided into four areas:
1. The mountainous areas
2. The moderate areas
3. The low-lying areas
4. The northern areas
Gonbad-e Kāvus Geographical Area
It is to be mentioned that Gonbad-e Kāvus is located in the moderate area of Golestan, which is characterized by rather cold winters and hot and humid summers.
Gonbad-e Kāvus is located in the east of the basin of the Caspian Sea and is among the most distant areas influenced by the Caspian climate with the characteristics of maritime air masses.
The general altitude of the area where Gonbad-e Kāvus is located is 50 meters, while in some parts it is over 2000 meters where the dominant climate is more of maritime and mountainous systems.
Thanks to the dominance of the west winds, the moisture from the sea are distributed across the area, and as Alborz mountain chains along the south of the basin capture it, the moisture cannot move southwards toward the inner plateau of Iran.
Eastern Part of the Golestan Province
However, as one moves eastwards along the Caspian shore, the weather turns less moist and arider. The air masses that influence the area under consideration are as follows:
1. In winter: continental polar air mass; Source region: Siberia. Maritime polar air mass, from the west and northwest; the Mediterranean from the west; scarce instances of continental tropical from the south, source region: Arabia to Sahara
2. In summer: continental tropical from the central Iran or southwest; maritime tropical from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean; maritime polar from the Black Sea and the Caspian; continental polar from the North