Geo-climatologically, Iran is divided into four major areas:
A temperate and moist subtropical area, characterized by lush vegetation and moderate to thick forests covering a major part of the Iranian land on the southern coast of the Caspian.
A mountainous and cold area characterized by numerous mountain chains and intermittent valley systems found in the west of Iran mainly among, but not limited to, the Zagros Mountains.
A warm semi-arid to arid area characterized by vast plains and scattered mountain ranges with more fertile plains adjacent to river systems and containing occasional sand or salt deserts. This area covers the biggest part of the inner Iranian Plateau.
A hot and humid area consisting mostly of the southern areas of Iran bordering the Persian Gulf along with the Khuzistan Plain.
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Based on this categorization, Golestan Province is characterized by the weather and climate of the first group. Thanks to its geographical location and topographical conditions, the climates in this area range from cold mountainous to moderate, semiarid, and arid climates. Climate-wise, the province is divided into four areas:
1. The mountainous areas
2. The moderate areas
3. The low-lying areas
4. The northern areas
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Gonbad-e Kāvus Geographical Area
It is to be mentioned that Gonbad-e Kāvus is located in the moderate area of Golestan, which is characterized by rather cold winters and hot and humid summers.
Gonbad-e Kāvus is located in the east of the basin of the Caspian Sea and is among the most distant areas influenced by the Caspian climate with the characteristics of maritime air masses.
The general altitude of the area where Gonbad-e Kāvus is located is 50 meters, while in some parts it is over 2000 meters where the dominant climate is more of maritime and mountainous systems.
Thanks to the dominance of the west winds, the moisture from the sea are distributed across the area, and as Alborz mountain chains along the south of the basin capture it, the moisture cannot move southwards toward the inner plateau of Iran.
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Eastern Part of the Golestan Province
However, as one moves eastwards along the Caspian shore, the weather turns less moist and arider. The air masses that influence the area under consideration are as follows:
1. In winter: continental polar air mass; Source region: Siberia. Maritime polar air mass, from the west and northwest; the Mediterranean from the west; scarce instances of continental tropical from the south, source region: Arabia to Sahara
2. In summer: continental tropical from the central Iran or southwest; maritime tropical from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean; maritime polar from the Black Sea and the Caspian; continental polar from the North
The name Jorjanis the key to tracing it back in history. In the ancient texts and maps, Gorgan Province County corresponds to the land of Hyrcania. An ancient land in Iran which included the south and southeast of the Caspian region.
It also corresponds to the location of the present Golestan Province. Including Bandar Abeskon, Astar Abad (town of Gorgan), and DahestanCounty (named after the Daheh Tribe) to the north of the district. Dahestan County has been self-ruled at times, while at some other times it was a part of Hyrcana (Jorjan).
The ancient name of Jorjanis recorded as Varkân or Varkâna in the inscription of Darius in Bisotun, and asVehrkâna in Vandidād. The Persian form of Gorgan Province comes from the European form of Hyrcani or Hyrcania or Hyrcana, which was a part of the Median kingdom originally but was later listed among the possessions of the Achaemenids rulers.
The district of Jorjan or Gorgan as it is common among the Iranians is located to the southeast of the Caspian and takes in vast plains and valleys irrigated by the Gorgan and the Atrak rivers.
Although considered as a suburb governed by Khorassan, Gorgan was, in fact, an independent province. The change caused by the Mongols’ invasion made Gorgan a subordinate of Mazandaran.
This district was, among others along the south of the Caspian, destroyed by the invasion of the Mongols, and was thoroughly demolished due to military expeditions of Tamerlane in the last years of the 8th century AH (14th -15th AD).
Being located along the route of the Silk Road was one major reason for Gorgan Province being commercially significant. In the year 94 AD, the Romans were major buyers of Chinese silk. Merchants would travel through Merv,Jorjan, Ray, and Hamadan to reach Ctesiphon.
Gorgan is a pleasant town, with its buildings made of adobe. It has more arid soil than Amol as there is less rain in Gorgan than in Tabaristan. Passing through the town, the Gorgan River divides itinto two parts along the river bank, linked by a bridge from one side to another. Gorgan is on the east bank, and Bekr Abad along the west, with the area of the pair, almost matching that of Rayy.
The town had plenty of fruit gardens, and they produced silk there. There are creeks across the town with bridges and arches over them. There is a square in front of the governor’s seat of Gorgan; the city has nine gates, too.Gorgan was of great importance to the Shiites as the shrine is known as Goor-e Sorkh [the red grave], which belonged to one of the sons of Imam Ali was located there.
The Past and The Present
The residence is very generous; they were greater in number in the early years of Islam, but drastically dwindled during the rule of the Buyids due to the outbreak of cholera and wars. They were then massacred by the Mongols insomuch as the town was leveled to the ground. Now it is scarcely populated.