Damavand is a large dormant stratovolcano in the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran in Mazandaran Province. It is located 60 km to the ENE of Tehran. Tehran a megacity with more than 12 million populations. Damavand is the highest mountain (5670 m) in the Middle East and West Asia.
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The region of Damavand Mountain
Mazandaran Province is oneof the most populous provinces (over 2 million people) by population density. And is one of the wealthiest in Iran with diverse natural resources. The province’s four largest cities are Sari, Babol, Amol, and Qaemshahr. With populations of 490830, 464535, 343747, and 293721 respectively.
There are also large populations in Golestan and Semnan Provinces further east. Many people live in hundreds of small towns and villages. The regional economy relies heavily on agriculture (Rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, tobacco, sugarcane). With the highest farm fish production and famous caviar throughout Iran.
Millions of tourists visit the region every year. The region is vulnerable to tephra fall. As many as 50,000 people live on the flanks of the volcano in numerous villages and small towns and could be at high direct risk from the volcano.
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The main highway connecting Tehran with the Caspian Sea passes down the Haraz valley on its southern flanks.
Damavand Mountain Volcano Details
There are no known historic eruptions. A seismic swarm was experienced by local people in 1979. But this has not been documented in any scientific literature. In 2007 mountain guides noticed that the summit fumaroles had become more active. And, together with a magnitude 2.9 earthquake in January 2007 close to the volcano, there is increasing interest and concern among Iranian geoscientists.
There is, no detailed or reliable geological map. The youngest known eruption is a lava flow on the western flanks with an age of 7.3 ka. Also, it is confirmed that the largest volcanic products are remarkably uniform in composition and petrology.
The tectonic setting of Damavand is puzzling. It is located in a young and very active zone of compression and strike-slip faulting. Deep thrust faults border the mountain range with large strike-slip faults towards the centre and south. Volcanoes located in regions of compressional thrust faulting are uncommon, although there are some rare examples.
Damavand Mountain as a Tourist Attraction
Damavand mountain is one the tourist attractions in Iran. It attracts many mountaineers rock climbers skiers and nature enthusiasts from all over the world manually.
Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society.
The earliest evidence of Persian gardens was recorded in 600 B.C. at the Palace area in Pasargadae and dates back to the final years of the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-30 B.C.).
The garden was based on the Zoroastrian division of the universe into four parts, four seasons or the four elements; water, wind, soil, and fire (Karimi-Hakkak 1998).
A mystical feeling for flowers and a love of gardens are integral parts of ancient Persian gardens. The Persian garden is a manifestation of supreme values and concepts and is well-known as a bridge connecting the two worlds of matter and meaning.
The philosophical design concept of Persian gardens is believed to be rooted in the four sacred elements of water, wind, fire, and soil.
The geometrical design of Persian gardens has been reflected in Persian carpets, potteries, and visual arts. The other distinctive feature of Persian gardens.
Which contributes to the introspective characteristics of ancient Persian people, is the wide application of thick brick walls, which surround the entire rectangular plan of the garden.
Other traits of Persian gardens include the application of perpendicular angles and straight lines, ponds and pools to supply the water and highlight the scenic landscape view.
Simultaneous use of evergreen and deciduous trees, planting of various types of plants and consideration of focal a pavilion known as Kooshk.
The purpose of designing gardens in Persia was not only limited to providing green spaces for the inhabitants, but also creating the opportunity for further interaction between the human and nature.
As well as creating various ranges of functions (Gharipour 2011) and promoting Persian culture via various design elements (Müller-Wille 2001).
In fact, Persian gardens are not only about beautiful geometries and shapes; but they manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol.
For instance, Shahzadeh-Mahan Garden, Fin Garden, and Chehel Sotun Garden, all of which are located in semi-desert and desert lowland zones near to the vast deserts of Iran: the Dasht-e Kavir and the Dasht-e Lut.
Persian gardens were designed with a sacred geometry representing and illustrating a union of the mortal/material world and the eternal universe (Khansari et al. 1998).
Therefore, the geometric structure can be considered as one of the most prominent features of Persian gardens.
The initial structure of Persian gardens was based on a geometrical quadripartite division with a pavilion in its intersection.
The general idea of this formation was based on the pre-Islamic Iranian division of the earth into four quarters, which may have been inspired by the geometrical motifs of Mesopotamia and Sindh Valley civilizations (Massoudi 2009).
During the Islamic period, the geometric quartered pattern of Persian gardens became more reinforced by the belief of four heavenly streams; as it was similar to the image of the heaven in the Quran (Mansouri 2011).
Therefore, the general pattern of most Persian gardens consisted of a rectangular space which is quartered by intersecting streams and pathways.
The common irrigation system of the time has been known as another effective factor in the formation of geometric garden structure besides the impact of Persian beliefs and morals (Naghizadeh 2013).
Iran is the land of four seasons history and culture, souvenir and authenticity. This is not a tourism slogan, this is the reality inferred from the experience of visitors who have been impressed by Iran’s beauties and amazing attractions.
Antiquity and richness of its culture and civilization, the variety of natural and geographical attractions, four – season climate, diverse cultural sites in addition to different tribes with different and fascinating traditions and customs have made Iran as a treasury of tangible and intangible heritage. Different climates can be found simultaneously in Iran.
Some cities have summer weather in winter, or have spring or autumn weather; at the same time in summer you might find some regions covered with snow, icicles or experiencing rain and breeze of spring.
Iran is the land of history and culture, not only because of its Pasargad and Persepolis, Chogha Zanbil, Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Yazd and Shiraz, Khuzestan and Isfahan, and its tangible heritage inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List; indeed its millennial civilization and thousands historical and archeological monuments and sites demonstrate variety and value of religious and spiritual heritage, rituals, intact traditions of this country as a sign of authenticity and splendor.
Today we have inherited the knowledge and science from scientists, scholars and elites such as Hafez, Saadi Shirazi, Omar Khayyam, Ibn Khaldun, Farabi, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ferdowsi and Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi. Iran is the land of souvenirs with a lot of Bazars and traditional markets. It is the origin of handicrafts and has more than two hundred kinds of arts and crafts of which have attained UNESCO Seal of Excellence.
Tourists can enjoy the quality of Iranian handicrafts and taste and smell of local food and cuisine. Iran, the land of four seasons, history and culture, souvenir and authenticity with mountains and deserts, forest, plains and seas, cultures and traditions is expecting you.
If you would like to find a small world in a vast country, visit Iran.